A big welcome to Part 4 of Elixir for the Lazy, Impatient and Busy - Processes 103!

If you’re new, do look at the previous posts on Lists and Processes (Part 1 and Part 2).

Today, we’ll look at the finer points of message passing. What happens when messages that are sent to a process cannot be processed?

Ready your terminals!

This will lead us to a fun exercise, where we purposely write code to get ourselves stuck, then unstuck, along with sneak peek into Elixir’s distributed capabilities - all at the same time!

What happens to unreceived messages?

We all know what happens to received messages - the matching clause is executed.

But what about unreceived messages? Let’s find out:

iex> self <- "i'm so lonely"
"i'm so lonely"
iex> self <- "so very lonely"
"so very lonely"
iex> self <- "i have nobody"
"i have nobody"

By default, the message is always returned after it has been sent. It doesn’t matter if the the process you are sending to can handle the message or not.


iex(1)> self <- "some message"
"some message"
iex(2)> self <- (1..10)
iex(3)> self <- {:one, :two, :three}

(Thanks to Yurii Rashkovskii for pointing this out!)

Now, lets see what is queued in the mailbox of the process using flush/0:

iex> flush
"i'm so lonely"
"so very lonely"
"i have nobody"

Let’s try to flush/0 again:

iex> flush

Once flushed, all the queued messages are gone.

Obviously, this is pretty useless behavior. But the lesson here is unhandled messages are stored in a mailbox.

To handle these messages, our process needs to know how to receive it.

Let’s send some messages that our process doesn’t know how to handle (yet):

iex> self <- "i'm so lonely"
"i'm so lonely"
iex> self <- "so very lonely"
"so very lonely"
iex> self <- "i have nobody"
"i have nobody"

So now we have 3 messages waiting in the mailbox queue. Let’s tell our process how to handle it:

iex(1)> receive do
(1)> msg -> "Received: #{msg}"
(1)> end
"Received: i'm so lonely"

iex(2)> receive do
(2)> msg -> "Received: #{msg}"
(2)> end
"Received: so very lonely"

iex(3)> receive do
(3)> msg -> "Received: #{msg}"
(3)> end
"Received: i have nobody"

What happens if we try to be cheeky and put in another receive block? Try it out:

iex(4)> receive do
(4)> msg -> "Received: #{msg}"
(4)> end
# Nothing happens!

Not only nothing happens, but the entire terminal is unresponsive. What gives?

That brings us to our next exercise!

A Sneak Peek into Distributed Elixir

Squid (Credits: Learn You Some Erlang for Great Good!)

In our previous exercise, we had one extra receive and no messages to process.

With no messages to handle, the process will simply block. To unblock the process, we need to send a message over. But if the process blocks, we have no way of getting a message to the process …

So how to we get ourselves out of this conundrum?

Nodes in action

Nodes are Erlang runtimes that can communicate with each other. I will skip any explanations for now and dive straight into the good bits.

Let’s see this in action:

1. Starting out

Open 2 terminal windows. We will start iex with --sname. This makes and assigns a short name to the distributed node.

In the first terminal:

% iex --sname one

Similarly, in the second terminal:

% iex --sname two

Notice that the prompt looks slightly different. In mine, it says one@benjamintan and two@benjamintan respectively. We will need those information very soon. (Obviously, yours would look different.)

2. Register the processes

The nodes need to be able to discover where all the processes are. In order for that to happen, we will have to register the respective processes like so:

iex(one@benjamintan)> :global.register_name(:term_1, self)                                
iex(two@benjamintan)> :global.register_name(:term_2, self)                                

3. Let’s get stuck!

Let us intentionally block our process in the first terminal:

iex(one@benjamintan)> receive do
...(one@benjamintan)> {msg,sender} -> "I was blocked, then I was saved by #{inspect sender}: #{msg}"
...(one@benjamintan)> end                              

4. Connecting the Nodes together!

Here comes the really fun bit. Go to Terminal 2, and connect both nodes together using Node.connect:

iex(two@benjamintan)> Node.connect :'one@benjamintan'

We need to communicate with the (currently blocked) process in Terminal 1. So we need to find that process:

iex(two@benjamintan)> term_1 = :global.whereis_name(:term_1)

5. Send the message over!

Now that we have a reference to the process in Terminal 1, we can send a message to it as usual:

iex(two@benjamintan)> term_1 <- { "Hurray!", self }

Now check out what has happened in Terminal 1:

"I was blocked, then I was saved by #PID<8163.32.0>: Hurray!"


Errata to the previous post

In “Minor Gotcha: Where to place the recursive call?” of my previous post, I wrote that if the recursive call (the second last line) is not within the receive block, it would not be executed.

def hola do
  receive do
    {sender, msg} ->
      sender <- { :ok, "Received: '#{msg}'. Thank you!" }
  hola # <-- This is executed!

I was wrong!

John Warwick was kind enough to send me an email and point me to his repository in order to prove that, yes indeed, the hola function is called even outside the receive block using ExUnit.

He even provided the steps (see comments in the previous post) to run the project.

I encourage you to take a look at it, because it serves as a wonderful reminder and lesson on how code always wins arguments.

Next Time …

We shall look the debugging facilities Elixir and Erlang gives us.

Stay tuned and as always, thanks for reading!